Positive Discipline Research In Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Prior to 2021
The Journal of Individual Psychology
Carroll, P., Brown, P. The Effectiveness of Positive Discipline Parenting Workshops on Parental Attitude and Behavior. Journal of Individual Psychology, 76, 286–303, 2020.
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a group-based parenting education program known as Positive Discipline. Positive Discipline is an Adlerian approach to parenting that emphasizes encouragement and the importance of belonging and significance. Taught in a parenting workshop, Positive Discipline attempts to teach parents concepts and tools to help them develop mutually respectful relationships through the use of structured and experiential learning. The present study uses a pre- and posttest design to evaluate the effects of these free 7-week workshops, which were offered to mostly Hispanic, mostly low-income participants in the Central Valley region of California. Results indicate that the workshops appear to be effective in influencing some aspects of parenting attitude and behavior, and that the attitudes and behavior correspond to concepts of authoritative parenting. A 3-month follow-up was also assessed, which appears to indicate that most effects persist beyond the termination of the program.
Gfroerer, K., Nelsen, J., & Kern, R. (2013). Positive Discipline: Helping children develop belonging and coping resources using Individual Psychology.
Holliday, M. (2014). Authoritative parenting and outcomes of Positive Discipline parent training: Parenting style and perceived efficacy. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.
The Adler School of Professional Psychology
This study was designed to investigate the impact of Adlerian parent trainings on parenting style and perceived competence, in order to determine if Positive Discipline parent training courses promote the authoritative parenting style. It was hypothesized that an Adlerian parent training would both promote the authoritative style and reduce authoritarian style and permissive style. It was also hypothesized that after attending a parent training, parents would note an increase in their sense of competence as parents. The central constructs were assessed through an online survey that included a measure of parenting style (Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire; PSDQ) and a measure of parenting competence (Parent Sense of Competence; PSOC). The sample consisted of 101 parents who attended one of 26 distinct Positive Discipline parent training group classes offered in cities across the United States. For the study, parents were assessed for parenting style and competence before the start of the course, after they completed the course, and at a 3-month follow-up period. Results indicated that parents experienced significant increases in both authoritativeness and sense of competence from pre-test to post-test. There was an even stronger significance associated with the increase in authoritativeness from pre-test to the three-month follow-up. Results also confirmed the hypothesis that attendance at the parent training would lead to reduced levels of authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The study provides emperical support for the theoretical link between the Adlerian parenting model and the authoritative parenting model.