Log in

Log in

The Journal of Individual Psychology

Positive Discipline uses the theory of Individual Psychology to teach parents and educators effective methods for helping children become responsible, respectful, and resourceful. Positive Discipline is based on the teachings of Alfred Adler and Rudolph Dreikurs. The Journal of Individual Psychology provides a forum for dialogue pertaining to Adlerian practices, principles, and theoretical development. Articles relate to theoretical and research issues as well as concerns of practice and application of Individual Psychology. Below is a sample of articles published in the Journal of Individual Psychology specifically related to Positive Discipline or Adlerian practices incorporated by Positive Discipline. These journal publications show the rich history and foundation on which Positive Discipline is based. The editors of the Journal place great emphasis on maintaining high overall quality of research and scholarly contributions. - See more at:

Carroll, P., Brown, P. The Effectiveness of Positive Discipline Parenting Workshops on Parental Attitude and Behavior. Journal of Individual Psychology,  76, 286–303, 2020.

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a group-based parenting education program known as Positive Discipline. Positive Discipline is an Adlerian approach to parenting that emphasizes encouragement and the importance of belonging and significance. Taught in a parenting workshop, Positive Discipline attempts to teach parents concepts and tools to help them develop mutually respectful relationships through the use of structured and experiential learning. The present study uses a pre- and posttest design to evaluate the effects of these free 7-week workshops, which were offered to mostly Hispanic, mostly low-income participants in the Central Valley region of California. Results indicate that the workshops appear to be effective in influencing some aspects of parenting attitude and behavior, and that the attitudes and behavior correspond to concepts of authoritative parenting. A 3-month follow-up was also assessed, which appears to indicate that most effects persist beyond the termination of the program.

Gfroerer, K., Nelsen, J., & Kern, R. (2013). Positive Discipline: Helping children develop belonging and coping resources using Individual Psychology.
The Journal of Individual Psychology. 69, 294-304.

Abstract: The authors discuss the Positive Discipline program, which is based on Adlerian theory, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the individual's need to belong. The Positive Discipline program is available through a variety of media, including books, a website, audio and video recordings, and apps. Specific Positive Discipline tools that support the development of a child's sense of belonging and the development of life skills are discussed. These Adlerian methods can be practically applied in a variety of settings: schools, clinical practice, and through parent education.

McVittie, J, & Best, A. (2009). The impact of Adlerian-Based parenting classes on self-reported parental behavior. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 65, 264-285.

Abstract: Public health research shows that the authoritative parenting style protects youth from risky and dangerous behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Adlerian-based parent education classes influence parental behavior in the direction of being more authoritative. To this end, over 1,250 participants completed assessments at the end of 110 Adlerian parenting classes in the United States and Canada. Parent-guardians reported statistically significant changes in behavior: setting clearer limits, increasing their sense of positive connection, and decreasing harshness. These changes toward a more authoritative parenting style (based on parent report of their own behaviors) were statistically significant. The greatest changes were in younger parents, women, those with the lowest income, and those with fewer children. Results were also useful for the parent educators in assessing their teaching.

Nelsen, J. (1985). The three R's of logical consequences, the three R's of punishment, and the six steps for winning children over.
Individual Psychology: The Journal of Adlerian Theory, Research & Practice, 41, 161-165.

Abstract: Focuses on the concept of logical consequences, punishment and steps in the winning of children. Enumeration of the R's of logical consequences; Purpose of the R's in punishment; Significance of the winning techniques to children after cooling-off period.

Copyright of Journal of Individual Psychology is the property of University of Texas Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.) The information above was shared with permission from University of Texas Press.

The Positive Discipline Association receives a 5% donation for all purchases made at

© Positive Discipline Association | Terms and Conditions

PO Box 888244, Atlanta, GA 30356
Toll-Free: 1-866-767-3472
Fax: 1-855-415-2477